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Biomarkers Can Influence Responses Of Genetically Identical Cells

genetically identical cells
genetically identical cells

Genes are the hereditary unit of the cell which constitutes DNA. Therefore, they direct the cell about the proteins essential for its functioning depending upon the need. Normally, it is a common thought that genetically identical cells tend to have the same response in similar situations. Although it is true to some extent, with the advancement of research, several secrets behind life are unfolding.

Scientists from the UT Southwestern Medical Centre N. Ezgi Wood and Mike Henne researched the response of genetically identical cells under certain stimuli. Mr. Wood is a postdoctoral fellow at UTSW, and Mr. Henne is an Assistant Professor of cell biology and biophysics at the same place.

For the demonstration purpose, they opted yeast. To know about how yeast acts in starvation and even after it, they deprived it of glucose. After some time, when the scientist reintroduced the nutrient (glucose), some cells were brought back to the normal cell cycle whereas, some died.

Human Cells

The cells which functioned normally even after starving were given the name “quiescent.” And the second group of cells which didn’t make it up to there was named “senescent.” Hence, there was something remarkable other than genes which had a major effect on cell’s response to stress.

To find out the cause of different responses of these genetically identical cells under stress, they performed the whole procedure again but with some modifications. So, they modified the cells in a way that the essential biomarkers will glow. Then, after starving the cells for 10 hours and reintroducing glucose to them, they observed the role of biomarkers in contributing to the fate of a cell.

Protein Regulatory Factor

Whi5 – a transcriptional regulator- appeared to be inside the quiescent cell. However, the image is opposite on the other side. This protein inhibitor disappeared from the senescent cells.

Other Factors

Msn2 and Rtg1 factors were there abundantly in both cells. Still, they stimulate only quiescent cells. However, despite its presence in the senescent cell, it didn’t play any role in its revival.

Nuclear-Vacuole Junctions

Quiescent cells had bigger Nuclear-vacuole Junctions as compared to the other group of cells. The nuclear-vacuole junction is formed by the Vac8p – vacuole membrane protein and Nvj1p – outer nuclear membrane protein.

According to Mr. Ezgi Wood:

How two identical cells side by side take different paths is a very basic biological question – we see it from bacteria to mammalian cells. Our results show that factors not traditionally associated with cell fate can, in fact, play an important role in this process, and gets us closer to answering the question of why this phenomenon takes place and how we might control it.

To get a brief review of the above-mentioned details, go and check the News Medical Life Sciences article.

Written by HealthRadar360

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