Dengue virus is a widespread disease that is spread by the mosquito’s bite. The species Aedes aegypti and also Aedes albopictus females mosquitoes mainly transmit this dangerous disease. The patient can suffer severe flu symptoms during the period of dengue. In addition, mosquitoes carry yellow fever, zika viruses, and chikungunya. Dengue virus is a contagious disease that affects many individuals, and initially, the dengue virus treatment was not discovered.
Dengue virus is found in tropical regions, with a high risk of varying internal or external conditions such as high temperature, humidity levels, monsoon, and unplanned urbanization construction. It can range from asymptomatic infection (when people do not realize they are not well) to acute flu-like symptoms in infected individuals. Although severe dengue is uncommon, it can have a variety of complications, including organ damage, extensive bleeding, belly aches, severe headaches, and plasma loss.
When severe dengue is not treated correctly, there is a greater chance of death. During dengue outbreaks (1950) in Thailand and the Philippines, severe dengue was discovered. The increasing growth now impacts the Asian and Latin American countries and causes an increased mortality rate among adults and children.
What is The Original Cause of Dengue?
A virus transmits dengue fever from the Flavivirus genus. There are four different groups of viruses that cause dengue fever (DENV-1, DENV-2, DENV-3, and DENV-4). It’s believed that after you’ve healed from an infection, you’ll have strong immunity to that serotype for the remaining time of your life. Moreover, after recovery, cross-immunity to the other serotype (a collection of closely related bacteria with a common set of antigens) is only partial and for a short time.
The probability of severe dengue is increased by reinfection (secondary infection) by different serotypes. Within an area, they can coexist, and the many regions are hyper-endemic for all four serotypes. In addition, infected visitors regularly transfer DENV from one location to another; an instant transfer can occur when susceptible vectors are available in these new places.
The Recent Discovery Of Dengue Virus Treatment
According to the research published in the Journal Nature on Wednesday, in cell cultures and mice, researchers found that a newly discovered chemical might efficiently deactivate the dengue virus, preventing it from reproducing and causing illness.
It seems successful whether used as a preventative measure or as a therapy once the virus has been acquired. In the fight over dengue fever, this is an “exciting” breakthrough, according to Scott Biering and Eva Harris of the School of Public Health at the University of California, Berkeley.
It “represents a substantial breakthrough in the area of dengue virus treatments,” the duo stated in a Nature article, despite not being part of the study. Nevertheless, the challenge faced by the mosquito-borne dengue virus, which infects at least 98 million people each year and is prevalent in 128 countries worldwide, is undeniable.
It can produce severe flu-like illness and can lead to severe dengue fever, which could be deadly. However, still authenticated dengue virus treatment is not discovered since the disease has been spread to the globe. Additionally, if anyone is diagnosed with dengue the second time, it can be the worst condition for the patient and take time to recover or maybe lead to death.
The vaccine Dengvaxia is approved for specific countries, although it is effective for only a single strain. Enter JNJ-A07, a chemical discovered by evaluating hundreds of possible candidates in a method characterized by researcher Johan Neyts as “looking for a needle in a haystack.” And the result is worth mentioning that it turned out to be an effective way to prevent dengue. Moreover, its impact on diseased animals is “unprecedented,” according to Neyts, who assisted in the research.
“There is significant antiviral efficacy even if therapy is begun at the height of viral replication,” said Neyts. JNJ-A07 operates by preventing the dengue virus from interacting with two essential proteins for reproduction, and it was potent against all four serotypes.
Clinical Trials and Future Studies
Although dengue fever may develop fast, the researchers discovered that JNJ-A07 is unlikely to experience considerable treatment resilience. It is because JNJ-A07 prevents the dengue virus from interacting with protein molecules essential for its reproduction. As a result, it functioned against those four dengue strains in testing in cells, both those from mosquitos and people. In addition, because dengue can develop fast, the researchers looked at how JNJ-A07 would perform as the virus developed.
Surprisingly, the resilience changes also seemed to prevent the virus from reproducing in mosquito cells. That means that even if the virus generates resilience to JNJ-A07 therapy, it will no longer be transferable by mosquitoes, thus holding the virus to rest in its natural habitat.
The chemical was successful when given to mice before or after infection, which is hopeful.
However, several issues concerning JNJ-A07 remain unanswered, mainly whether it would be more successful if combined with other drugs. Another possible problem is if it increases the risk of reinfection.
When patients get dengue fever, the existence of the virus in their blood, termed as viremia, triggers a powerful immune reaction that shields them from transmission in the long term.
Unfortunately, however, certain people’s immune systems are poorer, making them more susceptible to reinfection with various strains, resulting in severe distressing conditions.
Because JNJ-A07 lowers viremia, it is emphasized that additional study is required to see if this makes patients more vulnerable to reinfection. However, considering the uncertainties, Neyts believes the study has a lot of potentials.
“It was astounding to see the chemical operate so potently in animals,” he added, calling the research “an amazing ride.”
Common regions where Dengue Virus is found
Once you get infected with one of the dengue viruses, you gain lifelong immunity as a dengue virus treatment. But you can also be contracted with the other three dengue viruses in your life. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the individual affected rate from the dengue virus is about 400 million each year globally. Many areas are particularly affected. Infection is more likely to occur in the following areas:
- Northern parts of Australia
- Southern China
- South America
- Southeast Asia
- the Caribbean
- Pacific Islands
- Sub-Saharan Africa
- Central America
In the United States, there are few rare regions where the dengue virus is found. Instead, the virus is most commonly caught while traveling overseas, according to the most recent statistics. However, Hawaii, Texas near the Mexican border, and Florida are at a higher risk of complications.
Dengue fever symptoms
Symptoms of dengue fever mainly appear four to ten days from the acute infection. Effects will be minor in many situations. They might be confused about flu or other illness concerns. It can be more severe for those adults and children who have never experienced any infection than those who have already experienced it. Symptoms can remain consistent from 2 to 7 days and contain:
- Severe muscular and joint aches
- High fever (106°F or 41°C) that emerges suddenly.
- A dreadful headache
- Rashes on the skin (come to see between 2 and 5 days after the rising temperature or fever).
- Lymph glands swollen
Severe dengue virus can include:
- Bleeding in vomiting and stool
- Frequent Vomiting
- Tenderness and discomfort in the stomach
- Tiredness, agitation, or irritation are all symptoms of severe dengue virus.
Dengue fever diagnosis
With blood testing, doctors check the antibodies of the dengue virus to identify the patient’s condition. In addition, there are two standard tests performed in the lab that are used in determining the virus.
This test identifies the viral components directly and immediately so doctors can take action and start providing initial dengue virus treatment. However, because this sort of testing frequently necessitates specialized equipment and technically skilled personnel, it may not be offered in all medical institutions.
A serological test finds antibodies in the blood to see if you’re currently infected or have recently been infected. If you get dengue indications after visiting abroad, you should consult a doctor to ensure you don’t have the virus.
Dengue fever complications
Carrying antibodies to the dengue virus from prior infection and maintaining a chronic health condition are potential indicators for getting dengue hemorrhagic fever.
The following symptoms characterize this uncommon type of illness:
- Gum bleeding is a common occurrence.
- The blood vessels are damaged.
- A high temperature is seen.
- Breakdown of the circulatory system.
- Enlargement of the liver.
- Internal bleeding.
- There is bleeding under the skin.
- The lymphatic system is weakened.
- The nose is bleeding.
To conclude, researchers discovered a well-testing vaccine for dengue virus treatment, but still, there is a long way to go to introduce it globally. Although the dengue virus is not immensely destructive, unseriousness can still cost you even more. To avoid the contraction of mosquitoes, you should cover your body parts, make sure not to open the windows unnecessarily.
The most crucial prevention you can take is making your surroundings clean, not storing water, or uncovering water in any container. If your sleeping space isn’t covered, use mosquito netting. Also, use medicated mosquito repellent to help you stay away from the dengue virus contained mosquito species.